Linguistics philosophy Societies

Metaphors in Language: Why Argument is War

Your claims are indefensible.
He attacked every weak point in my argument. His criticisms were right on
I demolished his argument.
I’ve never won an argument with him.
You disagree? Okay, shoot!
If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out.
He shot down all of my arguments.

It is important to see that we don’t just talk about arguments in terms of war. We can
actually win or lose arguments. We see the person we are arguing with as an opponent. We
attack his positions and we defend our own. We gain and lose ground. We plan and use
strategies. If we find a position indefensible, we can abandon it and take a new line of
attack. Many of the things we do in arguing are partially structured by the concept of war.
Though there is no physical battle, there is a verbal battle, and the structure of an
argument—attack, defense, counterattack, etc.—reflects this. It is in this sense that the
ARGUMENT IS WAR metaphor is one that we live by in this culture; it structures the actions we
perform in arguing…

Our conventional ways of talking about arguments pre-suppose a metaphor we are hardly
ever conscious of. The metaphor is not merely in the words we use—it is in our very
concept of an argument. The language of argument is not poetic, fanciful, or rhetorical; it is literal. We talk about arguments that way because we conceive of them that way—and
we act according to the way we conceive of things.”

Metaphors We Live By, George Lakoff and Mark Johnsen. 2003. p.4

class Societies

The Fundamental Problem of Middle Classness

“The middle class man is scared.

As C. Wright Mills notes, ‘He is always somebody’s man, the corporation’s, the government’s, the army’s…’

One can’t be too careful.

One management advisor told Studs Terkel: ‘Your wife, your children have to behave properly. You’ve got to fit the mold. You’ve got to be on guard.’

In Coming Up for Air (1939) George Orwell, speaking for his middle-class hero, gets it right:

‘There’s a lot of rot talked about the sufferings of the working class. I’m not so sorry for the proles myself…The prole suffers physically, but he’s a free man when he isn’t working. But in every one of those stucco boxes there’s some poor bastard who’s never free except when he’s fast asleep.’ ”

Class, Paul Fussell, 1983. p.36-37

economics history Societies

On Possible Implications of a Global Model of Development: Current Trends in Sociological Development Theories and Oswald Spengler’s World-History Development Theory

The quest for understanding the structure and implications of current economic, social and political phenomena is not limited to the field of sociology. As was seen in the previous descriptions of the movement within sociological theories from localized to national to global perspectives on development, social development in some form seems to be a phenomenon shared by all societies to some extent. This portion of the paper will examine the historian Oswald Spengler who proposed that the current observable phenomena within contemporary society is best understood in light of an historical examination of the major societies within known history, since social development is not unique to the “modern” world.