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Hydroponics

This is the first of a series of articles on hydroponic growing tecniques, in this article I am going to introduce you to the advantages (and disadvantages) of hydroponic culture, this type of culture is very useful for those of you that want to grow pesticide-free, sustainable, nutritious fruits, vegetables and herbs indoor (closets, small rooms). Modern food is often polluted by chemicals, hormones and it is often deficient of many essential nutrients like vitamins and mineral salts. Growing plants and herbs that are rich of these essential nutrients is relatively cheap with hydroponics. You can even grow fresh fodder for cattle in order to produce high quality meat , cheese and milk.

My next articles will also cover more complex arguments like homemade fertilizers, greenhouse culture, aeroponics and how to build lighting and irrigation systems. There is quite a market for over-priced equipment and fertilizers so it is important to learn how to build your own in order to save a lot of $$$, this requires only basic skills.

For those of you that aren’t adept at basic horticulture I have included a series of links to books that explain basic information like: how plants grow, how photosynthesis works, why PH is important for plants etc You can find this links at the end of this post, I have also included links for some very important books about hydroponics.

INTRODUCTION

Hydroponic is a type of culture in which all nutrients are supplied to the plant through the irrigation water, with the growing substrate being soilless (mostly inorganic). In open systems the nutrient solution is discarded after it pass through root mass/medium while in closed systems the solution recirculate.

ADVANTAGES

Crops can be grown where no suitable soil exists or where the soil is contaminated with disease.

Labor for tilling, cultivating, fumigating, watering, and other traditional practices are largely eliminated.

Maximum yields are possible, making the system economically feasible in high-density and expensive land areas.

Conservation of water and nutrients, closed systems cause no form of pollution.

Complete control over the growing environment.

DISADVANTAGES

More expensive than traditional soil culture.

Require basic skills in various disciplines: electrical, plumbing, chemistry, horticulture.

The plants react very fast to poor nutritious or bad enviromental conditions.

Disease can spread very quickly if proper care is not given.

Not all plant cultivars are suitable for hydroponic culture.

THERE ARE 2 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE STARTING

Number 1

This culture is very profitable for off-season high value crops, for example basil, cherry tomatoes, peppers and herbs during the winter. If you can sell your harvests to gourmet restaurants and farmer-markets you can recover your growing costs very quickly. You can grow different high quality crops in only 1 square meter using a shelf-like structure or rotary hydroponic systems.

Number 2

Lighting costs are very high:

Fluorescent tubes, High Intensity Discarge Lamps can be bought at a fair price BUT they are inefficient, consume a lot of electricity and most light bulbs/tubes don’t come in the right light spectrum therefor up to 60% of emitted light is wasted. They contain mercury and HID lamps generate a lot of excess heat; They also require expensive reflectors and ballasts for optimal use. It is important that you use these lamps only for herbs and leaf vegetables if you want to grow tomatoes or other crops that require a lot of light you must build a LED Array with blue and red leds (with 10% yellow/green light).

LUMENS ARE USELESS FOR PLANTS LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS, you need to use PAR WATTS / square meter or microeinsteins. Plants require mostly blue and red photons for photosynthesis, you only need 10% of yellow-green light, most commercial lights are in the yellow green spectrum.  There is a lot of bulls*it in horticulture marketing especially regarding grow lights sold at hydroponic shops, most of these lamps are industrial lamps with just a different label.

LINKS

For Beginners:

http://www.simplyhydroponic.com/hydroponic-systems/5-types-of-hydroponic-systems

Horticulture:

http://rapidshare.com/files/416333364/Horticulture.rar

http://depositfiles.com/files/dezn3ocd6

Hydroponics:

http://avaxhome.ws/ebooks/science_books/biology_genetics/65m745364n645.html

http://www.mediafire.com/?t1avo5u5p187ni6

Tomatoes:

http://ebookee.org/Tomatoes_1002408.html

Scientific Studies:

http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

How to Be a Modern-Day Dictator

Putin chooses to send tax inspectors or health inspectors to close down or shutter a dissident group.

In Venezuela, laws are written broadly and then used like a scalpel against any group that is deemed a threat. The Chinese Communist Party frequently refers to democracy and makes sure that all of its top leaders only serve two terms. There are all sorts of different ways in which regimes are finding how to move and navigate through forces that challenge their regimes that make them appear to be other than what they are.

I was in China about 10 days after Mubarak fell.

And it was an incredible moment, because, on the one hand, there was no visible sign of revolution, but there was a tremendous tension. And there had been a call for people to assemble at different points around China at a particular moment on a particular day.

And the regime knew that. I went to one of those spots at 2:00 p.m. on that Sunday, and it was an incredible thing. You saw the fear that the regime exhibited by just the sheer number of police that were present. But more than the police were the number of plainclothes policeman.

There were moments when I was walking through crowds, and literally, three, four, five people around me, they all had earpieces.

They have really developed excellent crowd control techniques, where they would move the crowds through with street-cleaning equipment. And they would push people through with lots of water, cleaning the same street corner again and again and again.

Mind you, no one is actually coming out to protest. No one is actually declaring, down with the Chinese Communist Party. If you were to do that, then you would be rushed away in no time by security. But, rather, the call had been for people just to come out for a stroll.

And that was a very clever way of going about it, because you can’t really arrest someone for just walking down the street.

One of my favorite examples is actually from Egypt before the revolution, where you had members of the April 6 Movement, who they put out a call on Facebook for people to rally around a strike that was going happen in another part of the country.

And they said to people, on that day, just don’t go to work, another easy way to sort of show your protest without actually taking enormous risk. Just stay within your home on that given day. And the support for this was enormous on Facebook. And so the regime’s initial response was to start putting out a ticker on all television broadcasts saying, on April 6, everyone must go to work.

They inadvertently broadcast this message in a way that the members of April 6 never could have imagined. Egypt is a country of 81 million people. The regime had mistakenly, inadvertently communicated this protest to everyone.

Link h/t Isegoria

See previous:

https://colonyofcommodus.wordpress.com/2012/06/07/the-coup-detat-get-your-tanks-off-my-lawn/

https://colonyofcommodus.wordpress.com/2012/06/05/more-on-snitches/

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