FORWARD BASE B

"Pay my troops no mind; they're just on a fact-finding mission."

Category Archives: Science

A Documentary: Diving Under the Antarctic Ice Sheet

I sometimes watch documentaries about far off things and by following my curiosity feel struck by a spiritual sense of wonder.  It’s the total opposite of the heavy ashen feeling I get in the pit of my stomach when someone is watching one of those “reality” shows or a sitcom with a laugh track.  One feels divine, the other feels banal and dreary as snack cake wrappers on the sidewalk.

I recently found this documentary about diving under the Antarctic Ice.

There’s a smoldering black volcano, frosted in white, Mount Erebus, looming over their wind-savaged ice sheet.
There’s the cozy McMurdo base that feels like a colony on another planet.

The film shows what the crew has to deal with trying to film there, it’s not just nature footage disconnected from their struggle.
There’s logistics we’d normally never think about.  Because the ice changes constantly, a route that was safe for vehicles at the last survey might not be anymore.  Even getting to the locations they want to shoot at comes with substantial dangers.
Their leader seems extremely patient and after decades of experience pretty much unflappable.  Even when being told bad news he just respectfully listens.  They have a task to accomplish, not make-work, so whining doesn’t help.

Once they start diving, it’s amazing how there’s plenty of life below thriving in an eerie glow of light filtered through tons of ice.  I’ve been fascinated by these creatures ever since I read as a kid that they actually have anti-freeze in their blood.   Growing like coral on the ocean floor are these formations of ice crystals, the points where freeze battles thaw.  They find actual tubes of ice formed by sea water passing through currents of melting fresh water. The divers can only spend about 20 minutes even with heavy duty suits.  And again there’s details we’d never think about—even with all their gear, their lips are still directly exposed to the sub-freezing water.
There’s just a short time they can do their work in the spring when they have enough sunlight and the waters are still among the clearest in the world, they can see a quarter mile in the dim light!  They don’t have long before plankton and algae blooms cloud up the water for the summer.

I looked up some things on life in Antarctica and discovered that McMurdo base always has at least one bar open and signs in each building telling people the conditions outside, whether it’s even permissible to go out.  Mount Erebus actually has a volcanology lab on top.

The skyline of McMurdo base at night, lit up it seems like a real town.

The skyline of McMurdo base at night, lit up it seems like a real town.

 

Apparently something like 5000 people live in Antarctica in the summer, closer to 1000 in the winter.  There is still no such thing as an Antarctican, there have been 10 people born there since 1978, as close as we get for now.

It’s obvious watching this film that these people are operating in environments almost completely hostile to human life.  Suddenly all the talk of moonbases and mars colonies seems quite silly.
Even life in Antarctica right here on earth is impractical.  Or look at all the uninhabited deserts and mountains in pretty much every country on Earth.  Not that many people are willing to live in Montana let alone on Mars.
I suppose the next frontier might simply be to develop technologies that open up marginal lands and make people less dependent on centralized grids.
At present all the trends point to urbanization and the more people are forced to live in the center to find jobs and mates, the more control the rulers will have, just as Pharaohs had over peasants stuck on a narrow fertile strip by the Nile surrounded by desert.

On Herdbeasts

No human can survive on its own, so every one of us has to pander to the group to stay alive, let alone to thrive and have the surplus necessary for reproduction.  Independence is a myth, individual freedom is a thing we must steal in the dark.

So selection for group compliance is heavy amongst human beings.
People often know in their hearts that an absurd popular belief is false or at best uncertain, but they have a strange ability to refuse to admit even to themselves except in the dark of night as they try to sleep.  Their herd instincts overwhelm their reason.  This is the dissonance you see in every washed up careerist schlub you meet.  That middle class guy who lives a secure life with a wife and two kids, yet no one envies him.

This is what drives the evangelist to say “but how do you live without Jesus in your heart?”  They’re speaking to their own deeply embedded fears, not to you.  These fears are all the worse because they can never confront them, like ghosts hiding under a child’s bed.

Group existence is likely the cause of human intelligence.  In a group with just 5 other people, you have 25 possible combinations with them to account for.  Chimpanzees live in bands of perhaps 12-16 they deal with perhaps 144 to 256 different combinations.  Humans are equipped to handle groups up to 150 different people, or 22,500 possible combinations of interactions.
The man with even a slight edge in such a large group ends up with the best women and most of the wealth.
A society where millions interact has innumerable combinations and impossibly complex patterns.  Such a situation is bound to create pressures that produce herd predators that have an edge in exploiting mass trends.

Treated as an aberration in youth, I barely survived, but now I find I have great survival advantages.  I see people following trends and reading the news, while I ask how the trend creators gain and what’s in it for the journalists.  I would hope that I am the future and will do everything in my power to make it so.

I don’t fault them as much as I used to.  I’ve come to understand that every group has rules that serve to weed out specimens that are poorly adapted.
On reflection, I’ve come to realize I’d do the exact same thing if I had power.
I would wield it unapologetically, remembering well what life was like when they were in charge.
I’d naturally make life hard for those who displease me and grease all the wheels in life for the right kind of people.

An Experiment to Test the “Watchmaker” Objection To Evolution

“The origin of adaptations…is one of the deepest problems in Darwinism.  How do novel adaptations arise from small and gradual beginnings?

There is a genus of finches with mandibles that cross over at the tips…called crossbills… The twisted beak allows the bird to pry open closed (pine) cones.
What Benkman and Lindholm did was to uncross the beaks of these birds by trimming the crossed part of the mandibles with an ordinary nail clippers.
The birds with uncrossed bills turned out to be just as good as ever at extracting seeds from dry, open pinecones.  Byt they could no longer handle closed cones.
Day by day, as the twist in their beaks grew back, the birds did better and better with more and more recalcitrant cones.  After a month, their beaks were completely regrown.
Benkman and Lindholm could measure the value of an adaptation from its very beginnings to its final form.
If crossed mandibles were useful to these birds only when fully formed, then it really would be a puzzle how they could have arisen by natural selection.  The cross would have to appear all at once.
It would be the kind of problem before which Darwin felt his theory would “absolutely break down.”

But the finches began to get better at opening pinecones when the cross in their beaks was still too small to be visible to the eye.  Even a slight crossing of the mandibles confers a small, incremental benefit, making more and more tightly closed cones accessible….
The press of competition in the woods would have made the novelty of a crossed beak more and more desirable, because it would allow its possessor to eat food n one else could eat; the same competitive pressure would favor each new twist…
Today, however, theere is no profit to a sparrow or bunting in a deformed, twisted bill, because the crossbill niche is taken.”

-The Beak of the Finch
Jonathan Weiner, 1994
Excerpts from pages 180-184, emphasis mine

My Commentary: As convincing as these experimental results are, I still wonder about species such as the Emerald Jewel wasp that rely on precision brain surgery on the host of their larvae to successfully reproduce.

It Boosts Testosterone Without Side Effects

On weekdays, I was an English teacher in Korea.

On the weekends, I was an explorer in a strange country.

One of the things that intrigued me most was the Asian system of traditional medicine.

I wasn’t interested in curing an illness, though.
I was interested in supplements that make a fit person even stronger.

I don’t trust big pharma, so as I browsed Seoul’s medicinal markets my goal was to go back to the source.

I saw things such as dried seahorses and live hornet’s nests being sold as medicines.

I tried out lots of things myself including roasted centipede, gastrodia(a plant that produces no chlorophyll and generates its food through symbiosis with fungal colonies), and mugwort a relative of nightshade that induces crazy, lucid dreams.

My favorite though, was the most famous of them all:

Korean ginseng.
It contains phyto-androgens unique to ginseng plants known as ginsenosides, organic compounds that boost testosterone and strengthen the immune system. Ginseng is one of just a few herbs that’s known for benefiting pretty much the entire body, an adaptogen.
Better, it’s been used for thousands of years and in all that time, it’s never been associated with any of the devastating side effects that are commonplace with pharmaceuticals.

In Korea I was able to buy up entire 6 year old ginseng roots and consume them straight.

I loved the fiery rush and the extra resilience I’d get from consuming ginseng regularly and it became a part of my lifestyle.

When I got back to the states, I found the actual roots were almost impossible to find. Ginseng was only available as overpriced pills and weak extracts that were often made with junk grade young roots or cut with cheap imposters such as eleuthero root.

With little other choice I tried different brands of pills and was disappointed. They couldn’t compare to the real thing

 

Nanotechnology in Ancient Times

“According to a 2000-year-old recipe for hair dye, the ancient Greeks and Romans were harnessing a scientific force that they had no idea even existed – they were using nanotechnology on their very own heads.
The Greeks and Romans used hair dye with some measure of frequency, most often for the purpose of dying their gray hair to black. Their dry mixture contained ingredients such as slaked lime and lead oxide, which – when exposed to human hair for approximately 3 days – causes nanocrystals made from lead sulfide to form inside the shaft of hair.
This reaction is caused when sulfur from the amino acids that are naturally present in hair keratins mix with the lead in lead oxide – initially, this is what causes the hair to turn black, but it apparently also causes lead sulfide nanocrystals that are highly similar to those found in modern, advanced scientific processes!
In simpler terms, the chemical compound that forms inside of the human hair is what colors the hair without damaging it – and the process by which the hair is dyed black is very similar to modern nanotechnology. Fortunately for the Greeks and Romans, this kind of lead-based hair dye is safe for human use, since the compound typically has trouble penetrating the skin.
Interestingly enough, the chemical engineering that came from this dye process – where the tiny crystal structures line up to form ‘quantum dots‘ – is something that scientists have admitted is a “current challenge in nanotechnology”, and is actually a process that researchers are currently trying to figure out how to develop on their own.”

LINK

quantum dots picture

These substances were colored by quantum dots in a modern laboratory. The principle at work is related to that used in ancient hair dye

The Big Science and Technology Problems of the 21st Century

The big problems are mostly the same as in the 20th century and most of them stretch back much farther than that.

http://www.networkworld.com/community/blog/what-are-grand-technology-and-scientific-challenges-21st-century

In fact, X Prize last year it declared a top eight list of key challenges that could end up being public competitions in the coming months or years.  The eight concepts or challenges included:

1. Water (“Super ‘Brita’ Water Prize”) – Develop a technology to solve the world’s number one cause of death: Lack of safe drinking water:

2. Personal Health Monitoring System (“OnStar for the Body Prize”) – Develop and demonstrate a system which continuously monitors an individual’s personal health-related data leading to early detection of disease or illness.

3. Energy & Water from Waste – Create and demonstrate a technology that generates off-grid water and energy for a small village derived from human and organic waste.

4. Around the World Ocean Survey – Create an autonomous underwater vehicle that can circumnavigate the world’s oceans, gathering data each step of the way.

5. Transforming Parentless Youth – Dramatically and positively change the outcome for significantly at risk foster children, reducing the number of incarcerations and unemployment rate by fifty-percent or more.

6. Brain-Computer Interface (“Mind over Matter”) – Enable high function, minimally invasive brain to computer interfaces that can turn thought into action.

7. Wireless Power Transmission – Wireless transmission of electricity over distances greater than 200 miles while losing less than two percent of the electricity during the transmission.

8. Ultra-Fast Point-To-Point Travel – Design and fly the world’s fastest point-to-point passenger travel system

#1 is probably done. Though it’s possible to create solutions at different scales of production.

#2 is going to be interesting as hackers will add functions to their sensors, and malicious ones will disrupt other peoples sensors for fun and profit.

I’ve heard of many implentations of #3, so it’s going to come down to what is most economical.

#4 is probably done, though a more robust version that can go deeper will be required to really satisfy the spirit of the goal.

#5 is quite difficult considering everything in our economy is forcing more people to be unemployed in the traditional sense. This is a judo problem, you can’t fix it within the normal means.

On #6, I’ve seen some simple EEG style sensors that can be integrated into games, but for the most part Brain-Machine interfaces are Sci-Fi. It’s easier to run prosthetics off of nerve impulses coming through limbs rather by sensing brainwaves without implants. So it’s going to take awhile to crack that problem. 3d interfaces are hitting the market now, both in VR headsets and 3d intractable  xbox kinect sensors:

The skeleton drawing system the kinect sensors use is software-based and can be modified, but other companies have already launched “improved” sensors that can be used on their own for 3d interaction.

#7 is interesting and we’ll have to see what is the most economical way of tackling it.

#8 needs to factor in safety, otherwise it won’t be widely used.

Some of the NRC’s problems are less thrilling, the benefits aren’t as clear to the man on the street, and it sort of reads like a list of “stuff we were going to do anyway, but we made a report for it”:

From the National Research Council report, the five challenges are:

1. How can the U.S. optics and photonics community invent technologies for the next factor of-100 cost-effective capacity increases in optical networks?

2. How can the U.S. optics and photonics community develop a seamless integration of photonics and electronics components as a mainstream platform for low-cost fabrication and packaging of systems on a chip for communications, sensing, medical, energy, and defense applications?

3. How can the U.S. military develop the required optical technologies to support platforms capable of wide-area surveillance, object identification and improved image resolution, high-bandwidth free-space communication, laser strike, and defense against missiles?

4. How can U.S. energy stakeholders achieve cost parity across the nation’s electric grid for solar power versus new fossil-fuel-powered electric plants by the year 2020?

5. How can the U.S. optics and photonics community develop optical sources and imaging tools to support an order of magnitude or more of increased resolution in manufacturing?

More interestingly, there is no way these questions can cover the whole of desires and needs that technology must fill for the 21st century. What are they missing?

Hydroponics

This is the first of a series of articles on hydroponic growing tecniques, in this article I am going to introduce you to the advantages (and disadvantages) of hydroponic culture, this type of culture is very useful for those of you that want to grow pesticide-free, sustainable, nutritious fruits, vegetables and herbs indoor (closets, small rooms). Modern food is often polluted by chemicals, hormones and it is often deficient of many essential nutrients like vitamins and mineral salts. Growing plants and herbs that are rich of these essential nutrients is relatively cheap with hydroponics. You can even grow fresh fodder for cattle in order to produce high quality meat , cheese and milk.

My next articles will also cover more complex arguments like homemade fertilizers, greenhouse culture, aeroponics and how to build lighting and irrigation systems. There is quite a market for over-priced equipment and fertilizers so it is important to learn how to build your own in order to save a lot of $$$, this requires only basic skills.

For those of you that aren’t adept at basic horticulture I have included a series of links to books that explain basic information like: how plants grow, how photosynthesis works, why PH is important for plants etc You can find this links at the end of this post, I have also included links for some very important books about hydroponics.

INTRODUCTION

Hydroponic is a type of culture in which all nutrients are supplied to the plant through the irrigation water, with the growing substrate being soilless (mostly inorganic). In open systems the nutrient solution is discarded after it pass through root mass/medium while in closed systems the solution recirculate.

ADVANTAGES

Crops can be grown where no suitable soil exists or where the soil is contaminated with disease.

Labor for tilling, cultivating, fumigating, watering, and other traditional practices are largely eliminated.

Maximum yields are possible, making the system economically feasible in high-density and expensive land areas.

Conservation of water and nutrients, closed systems cause no form of pollution.

Complete control over the growing environment.

DISADVANTAGES

More expensive than traditional soil culture.

Require basic skills in various disciplines: electrical, plumbing, chemistry, horticulture.

The plants react very fast to poor nutritious or bad enviromental conditions.

Disease can spread very quickly if proper care is not given.

Not all plant cultivars are suitable for hydroponic culture.

THERE ARE 2 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE STARTING

Number 1

This culture is very profitable for off-season high value crops, for example basil, cherry tomatoes, peppers and herbs during the winter. If you can sell your harvests to gourmet restaurants and farmer-markets you can recover your growing costs very quickly. You can grow different high quality crops in only 1 square meter using a shelf-like structure or rotary hydroponic systems.

Number 2

Lighting costs are very high:

Fluorescent tubes, High Intensity Discarge Lamps can be bought at a fair price BUT they are inefficient, consume a lot of electricity and most light bulbs/tubes don’t come in the right light spectrum therefor up to 60% of emitted light is wasted. They contain mercury and HID lamps generate a lot of excess heat; They also require expensive reflectors and ballasts for optimal use. It is important that you use these lamps only for herbs and leaf vegetables if you want to grow tomatoes or other crops that require a lot of light you must build a LED Array with blue and red leds (with 10% yellow/green light).

LUMENS ARE USELESS FOR PLANTS LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS, you need to use PAR WATTS / square meter or microeinsteins. Plants require mostly blue and red photons for photosynthesis, you only need 10% of yellow-green light, most commercial lights are in the yellow green spectrum.  There is a lot of bulls*it in horticulture marketing especially regarding grow lights sold at hydroponic shops, most of these lamps are industrial lamps with just a different label.

LINKS

For Beginners:

http://www.simplyhydroponic.com/hydroponic-systems/5-types-of-hydroponic-systems

Horticulture:

http://rapidshare.com/files/416333364/Horticulture.rar

http://depositfiles.com/files/dezn3ocd6

Hydroponics:

http://avaxhome.ws/ebooks/science_books/biology_genetics/65m745364n645.html

http://www.mediafire.com/?t1avo5u5p187ni6

Tomatoes:

http://ebookee.org/Tomatoes_1002408.html

Scientific Studies:

http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

India Scores In Space

I wonder what would happen if you did the Solomon Asch Conformity & Obedience Experiment With North East Asians?

Current literature has the ability to create consensus and eliminate dissent down to a science, but I wonder what would happen if you took into account North East Asian biology and social structure? Where is the tipping point into consensus with asians? Are they more likely to form no-go zones so that they appear to create consensus? I’ve noted psychology studies on young children aged 5-8, and talked to daycare workers, it’s generally agreed that asian children are quieter and easier to deal with from a young age. If there is a flexing point for conformist behavior, 5-25%, then that’s still a lot of room for variation in behavior.

http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/psychology/social/asch_conformity.html 

Real subject leans forward to get a better view of the lines being displayed.
This particular individual insisted that “he has to call them as he sees them”
and disagreed with the consensus over each of ‘staged’ trials. 


The subjects’ responses varied with the level of ‘majority opinion’ they were faced with.

He found that the subjects conformed to a group of 3 or 4 as readily as they did to a larger group. However, the subjects conformed much less if they had an “ally” In some of his experiments, Asch instructed one of the confederates to give correct answers. In the presence of this nonconformist, the real subjects conformed only one fourth as much as they did in the original experiment.

Sound Frequencies That Heal DNA?

“an earlier musical scale now referred to as the “Solfeggio Frequencies“. This is a six note scale that bears some resemblance to our modern seven note musical scale. When related to music, ‘Solfeggio’ is referred to as the “ability to sight read music and sing the notes accurately (pitch wise) without the use of a musical instrument’.
The solfeggio frequencies are reputed to be the original frequencies used by the Gregorian Monks when they chanted.”

LINK – with embedded youtube examples of the six frequencies.

How much of this is new-age nonsense? There’s plenty of people on the internet who vehemently dismiss any claims made about this tuning system as purest charlatanry.

What I know for sure is this kind of stuff is a hell of a lot of fun to play with.
As with a tuning fork, these pitches have a certain resonance that passes right through you.
With some, I can feel it in my sinuses, nose, or jawbone when listening to them with my earphones.

I found still another way to play around with tones:

Download tone generator software and simply experiment how different pitches feel.

Since certain vibrations clearly resonate through bone and tendon, it really makes me wonder what I would do to me if I sat in a room with the appropriate frequency being blasted through the entire chamber instead of just listening through my headphones.
Could it actually help with certain problems then?

A couple more fun things to try:
-Hum to match the pitch.
-Go to sleep with one of solfeggio meditation videos playing.(I find 741 hz makes me instantly sleepy)

Sir Macfarlane Burnet Recommended Use Of Biological Weapons Against High Population Asian Neighbors

http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/03/09/1015365752044.html

World-famous microbiologist Sir Macfarlane Burnet, the Nobel prize winner revered as Australia’s greatest medical research scientist, secretly urged the government to develop biological weapons for use against Indonesia and other “overpopulated” countries of South-East Asia.

The revelation is contained in top-secret files declassified by the National Archives of Australia, despite resistance from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Sir Macfarlane recommended in a secret report in 1947 that biological and chemical weapons should be developed to target food crops and spread infectious diseases.

His key advisory role on biological warfare was uncovered by Canberra historian Philip Dorling in the National Archives in 1998.

The department initially blocked release of the material on the basis it would damage Australia’s international relations. Dr Dorling sought a review and the material was finally released to him late last year.

The files include a comprehensive memo Sir Macfarlane wrote for the Defence Department in 1947 in which he said Australia should develop biological weapons that would work in tropical Asia without spreading to Australia’s more temperate population centres.

“Specifically to the Australian situation, the most effective counter-offensive to threatened invasion by overpopulated Asiatic countries would be directed towards the destruction by biological or chemical means of tropical food crops and the dissemination of infectious disease capable of spreading in tropical but not under Australian conditions,” Sir Macfarlane said.

The Victorian-born immunologist, who headed the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, won the Nobel prize for medicine in 1960. He died in 1985 but his theories on immunity and “clonal selection” provided the basis for modern biotechnology and genetic engineering.

Its use has the tremendous advantage of not destroying the enemy’s industrial potential which can then be taken over intact.

12 Longevity Enhancement Methods Used On Mice

Intermediary Steps In Evolution That Are Difficult To Explain

Macaws with pretty much no reasoning ability, let alone a scientific method “figured out” at some point in the evolutionary past how to nullify toxic foods by eating a particular type of clay.

Explanation?: Most birds constantly eat grit to enable their crop to grind up food anyway. Did the macaws that just so happened to eat this clay have a survival advantage over others?

Perhaps harder to explain:

A parasitic wasp that must sting its host(a cockroach) in a precise region of its brain in order to get the right results.

There’s no room for error here and successful reproduction is at stake. What might have been the intermediary steps that led to this destination?

Animals Are Rational

“How can non-injurious aggressive behaviors — especially displays — induce one opponent to give up and relinquish a valuable resource?”

Animals have clear set survival strategies. They don’t make mistakes or try the martingale like humans are wont to do. Based on their programmed strategy they invariably stick to the course that is most highly probable to result in survival and reproduction according to the house odds experienced by the previous generation.
They are truly survival machines that operate with industrial grade efficiency.

In many territorial disputes in the wild, the intruder will almost always back down. However great the defender’s disadvantage, they have nothing to lose and will fight to the death. The stronger intruder will win, but at a net loss.
Unlike a typical spiteful and neurotic human, the strong intruder in the animal kingdom backs down.

Humans then, are clearly survival machines removed from their original circumstances.
Truly, our congruency with the ‘natural state’ is equal to the degree which our behaviors are biologically rational.

hawks and doves

How Do Protons Determine the Identity of An Element? Should They?

OP: As I understand it, the only thing on a chemical level differentiating the different elements from each other is number of protons, and thus electrons. But how does adding one proton change something from say, carbon to nitrogen?

I’ve had awhile to think about this since I first posted this thread…

I suspect Van Der Waals forces might play a critical role in elemental identity.

The basic chemistry books in high school basically teach that all the action in the atom takes place in the electron orbitals.
So why would identity be determined by number of protons.

In fact, the protons in the core do exert a pull on other atoms known as Van der Waals forces. Perhaps this is one source of an element’s unique properties that’s directly influenced by number of protons?

Cutting Out The Pharma Middleman: Heart Meat As A Source of COQ10

I am often critical of supplements because they tend to be quite expensive and we don’t necessarily know how much can actually be assimilated by the human body in tablet or powder form.

A workaround in this case involves my usual question.
In what ordinary food sources is the active principle abundant?

In this case, heart meat.

I usually get beef hearts, though once I was able to get a bison heart.
They’re huge and weigh a a few pounds each. One of them could fill most of my rib cage.

Some butchers will have them or can special order them.

How do I eat it?

I find the flavor of heart so satisfying, I throw sliced up chunks right into a skillet with a bit of fat.
Pairs well with a nice brandy.

There’s some debate as to whether cooking destroys all or some of the COQ10 content, so I don’t usually fret if my heart meat is medium rare.

Effects: I find it to be a powerful physical stimulant, great before workouts or periods of extended effort.

Beef alone is a stimulant food but the heart meat takes it to another level. I’ll usually avoid eating it any time before I plan to go to sleep.

beef heart meat

Our Place In The Cosmos

William Shockley Talks About Race And Eugenics – 1974

The Liberation of Knowledge From Academic Journals

Richard Feynman – Explaining Magnets

Here he gets into why explaining “Why” is so difficult.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MO0r930Sn_8

Memory & The Brain

Journal of Visualized Experiments

Dyson Sphere

Dyson sphere is a hypothetical megastructure originally described by Freeman Dyson. Such a “sphere” would be a system of orbiting solar power satellites meant to completely encompass a star and capture most or all of its energy output. Dyson speculated that such structures would be the logical consequence of the long-term survival and escalating energy needs of a technological civilization, and proposed that searching for evidence of the existence of such structures might lead to the detection of advanced intelligent extraterrestrial life.

Since then, other variant designs involving building an artificial structure or series of structures to encompass a star have been proposed in exploratory engineering or described in science fiction under the name “Dyson sphere”. These later proposals have not been limited to solar-power stations. Many involve habitation or industrial elements. Most fictional depictions describe a solid shell of matter enclosing a star, which is considered the least plausible variant of the idea (see below). Link

Scientists develop portable generator that turns trash into electricity

Institutional Science – Bad Incentive System Part 1

%d bloggers like this: